Studying CNA Classes Online To A Lucrative Career

Participant interest, and support the expectation that a new or revised online cna classes will be accomplished. Too short a time could be self-defeating, and viewed as a lack of regard for members’ time and other responsibilities.

A productive approach is one that provides regular meetings at which participants can assess decisions step-by-step and plan for the next activity by studying and creating new ideas (Torres & Stanton, 1982). If there are enough committed and qualified committee members who have expertise or who seek assistance, and who also meet on a regular basis, the goal of a developed online cna training will be achieved in a timely manner. It is neither practical nor productive to spend an extensive period of time on any one component of the curriculum. Despite the discomfort that may accompany decisions that are not firmly fixed, the group should move on to completion. As the work progresses through subsequent meetings, final decisions can be accomplished.

A prerequisite for undertaking a project as large as online cna schools development is establishing a work plan. Major elements of the curriculum development process must be identified and a timeline specified, responsibility assigned for activities, procedures determined for recording meeting minutes and decisions, and the work shared. Initial decisions may need to be reviewed as the work progresses and circumstances not apparent at the outset become evident. The creation of a work plan will bring definition to the online cna certification development process.

Critical Path The critical path is a blueprint for action, specifying the steps to be completed, the deadlines, and the individuals or committees responsible for each phase of the curriculum development process. It will provide a concrete means to assess whether the online cna courses is being developed at a pace that will ensure implementation by the target date. Dates of key meetings and reporting intervals (Smith, 1999) can be included as part of the critical path. Although revisions may become necessary, the critical path explicates the work to be done and the time-frame in which it must be completed. Importantly, a detailed critical path is the rationale for requesting resources.

Agreeing on deadlines for the major milestones of curriculum development is the first step in the creation of a critical path. Typically, the initial decision is to identify the implementation date of the first courses, by placing this first on the critical path. This highlights or gives preeminence to the start date for the new or revised online cna degree. After deciding when the curriculum is to begin, determine the total amount of time available to finalize it by calculating back to the date the educational institution must approve the curriculum design. Identifying major activities that must occur before final approval, and the associated deadlines for each, is the next step. It is helpful to note which individual or committee will have responsibility for each aspect of the process, as well as the approval procedures necessary throughout curriculum development. As the process evolves, committees will find it helpful to develop their own critical paths.

Table 3.2 provides an example of a critical path, beginning with the implementation date of the curriculum and working backward in time to when the online cna classes development.

Process actually begins. A three-year period for the development of a typical four-year undergraduate program is presented in consideration of the time needed for the change process among faculty (Mown & Reece, 2000), various levels of approval that may exist in some institutions, and realities of faculty members’ other responsibilities. Once the reverse ordering is completed, the chart can be rotated so that it starts with the most immediate activities and ends with curriculum implementation. This is the critical path. Alternately a Gantt chart could be devised. The advantage of the Gantt chart is that it illustrates the duration of activities. A Gantt chart to match Table 3.2 is presented in Table 3.3.

Many other activities and meetings could be added to the critical path. For example, meetings of the Total Faculty Group and the Online cna training Committee might be included, as well as regular meetings with the school director. It is important to find a comfortable balance such that the critical path can specify the major work to be done without being overly detailed. Committees or individuals can develop other critical paths to ensure that their work will be completed to match the major deadlines.

Approaches to Sharing the Work Inherent in all group work is the need to determine how activities will be completed. Who will do what, and to what standard? This is partly accomplished by decisions about committee structures. Yet, within each committee, the matter of how to share the work will arise, and the approach is unlikely to be identical in each committee and subcommittee. In some, all members may prefer to work together as much as possible, so ideas are explored and consensus is achieved before much writing is done. For others, there may be a desire to divide tasks among individuals or dyads, and then bring back draft work to the group for discussion, revision, and consensus. Likely, some combination of these approaches will be agreed to, depending on the nature of the task and the imminence of deadlines. Although it is beyond the scope of this book to describe all aspects of successful group functioning, some elements are worthy of review when considering how the work of online cna degree development can be accomplished.

  • Agree on the goals to be achieved. This includes not only the task to be completed, but the deadline for completion and the standard of the work.
  • Obtain commitment from each of the members to achieve the goal.
  • Identify how much time each member can give to the task.
  • Discuss how the group will work together.
  • Consider the value of preparing a critical path for the group’s work.
  • Recognize that not all workgroups will become cohesive teams, whose synergy is intrinsically motivating (Wylie & Smith, 1999).

Schedule of Meetings Developing a schedule of meetings for committees and task forces will both expedite the work of curriculum development and keep the groups on track for.

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Choice is completed, decision-making differs from problem solving in that it is influenced by emotions and intuition, is purposeful and goal-oriented, involves a choice among options, and may not always start with a problem (Huber, 2000).

Decision-making might also be the “result of opportunities, challenges, or leadership initiatives”). It implies responsibility, and anticipation of consequences. Decision-making is considered to be the essence of leadership, and making decisions could be the most important aspect of a job, the most difficult, and the riskiest. Good decisions usually lead to attainment of goals, whereas bad decisions can impede progress, waste resources, cause harm or damage, and ultimately affect careers. Huber offers some core elements of decision-making:

  • identifying a problem, issue or situation
  • establishing criteria for evaluating potential solutions
  • searching for alternative solutions or actions
  • evaluating the alternatives
  • choosing specific alternatives (Huber, 2000)

Some decision-making techniques are outlined in Table 3.1.

TABLE 3.1 DECISION-MAKING TECHNIQUES

  • Trial and error
  • Pilot project
  • Problem critique: technique in which problem is outlined, facts determined, and

Potential solutions proposed

  • Creativity techniques: brainstorming, Delphi process, and nominal group
  • Decision tree or critical pathways
  • Fish-bone (or cause and effect chart)
  • Group problem solving and decision-making
  • Cost-benefit analysis
  • Worst case scenario

Decision-making Styles Not only is decision-making thought of as a process with identifiable steps; there are various decision-making styles, types (models), and strategies. Decision styles, as with leadership, range from authoritarian or autocratic, in which the leader makes the decision alone; consultative, collective or participative, where the leader seeks input before making the final decision; facilitative, in which the leader and group combined reach a shared decision; and delegate, where only the group makes the decision and the leader gives up control over the decision.

Types of decisions described by Bernhard and Walsh (1990) are twofold: satisficing, which implies choosing any solution that, will satisfy or minimally meet the desired goals; and optimizing, which involves comparing all possible solutions against the goals and choosing the one that best meets them. Satisficing decisions are easier to make as the decision-maker chooses the first and quickest solution for solving the problem, while sacrificing a fuller analysis of the situation. The speed of the decision might even inspire support from the group. In order to find the best solution, with the potential for effectiveness and acceptability by the group, an optimizing solution would be the logical choice.

Optimal Curriculum Decisions Curriculum design and construction can never become a matter of routine or formula. Curriculum development must rely on decisions determined by a variety of ideas, imagination, facts, theories, creativity, and even prejudices. Furthermore, curriculum decision-making is complicated as it involves people who have various levels of curriculum expertise, vested interests, private hopes and dreams, different ideas and emotions, and the desire to give the best possible education for students.

Decisions about curriculum should not be constrained by rules or rigid formulae, but rather be guided by desired curriculum goals, acceptability by the group, effective strategies, and internal and external contextual factors. (Chapter 5 will address data-gathering about contextual factors). Decision-makers should acknowledge that previous decisions influence each new or subsequent decision and that new decisions may lead to a reconsideration of previous choices. Optimal decision-making, therefore, is an iterative, dynamic, and interactive process grounded in contextual reality.

Establishing a Work Plan

When engaged in curriculum work, participants will have to redirect time and energy from other activities into curriculum development. Resources may have to be shifted from one committee to another. Assigning time to work on the curriculum during summer or release time, a usual practice is not always effective, as communications break down and commitment to the developing curriculum is substantially reduced.

Curriculum development is a slow process, the period of time for completion usually based on the frequency of meetings. It cannot be effective if crisis-oriented approaches are used. A written, realistic timetable to guide the activities of the group is important, as it places the activity in the context of its priority and the group’s commitment to.

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Because of their “feminine folly or feebleness,” nurses could never be entrusted with drugs m the dispensary or gain any medical knowledge, die Lancet wrote, fasted, they should be tutored only in subject matter that would make them “useful to physicians.”12 In a letter to the Times, physicians presented a clear expression of medicine’s view of nurses. “The medical argument is … that nursing is merely one of the means of cure, like the administration of medicines or the performance of operations; and that, like these, it can only be rightly carried out under absolute and unconditional subjection, in every principle and detail, to the doctor who is responsible for the case.

This view of nursing precluded even elite lady nurses’ control over the nursing work force. Doctors contended that because they were women, nurses—although constitutionally designed to cooperate with men were constitutionally unable to cooperate with and thus manage or lead other women. Many prominent physicians weighed in on this subject, including John Braxton Hicks, who identified the contractions that are often confused with the advent of labor.

At the thought of nurses having control over nursing, Hicks must have experienced his own spasms. In an article in the British Medical Journal, he painted a dire portrait of power-mad nursing superintendents who failed to grasp that the nursing staff is “naturally the handmaid” of physicians. If she worked in a nursing hierarchy controlled by an independent matron or superintendent, the ordinary bedside nurse, he warned, would look “to the matron more as her center” and would be “less interested in pleasing the medical authorities.” Such a system, Hicks contended, could not be tolerated.

Sir William Gull, consulting physician to Guy’s Hospital, asserted that “there is no proper duty which tie nurse has to perform, even to the placing of a pillow, which does not or may not involve a principle, and a principle which can be only properly met by one who has had the advantage of medical instruction. It is a fundamental and dangerous error to maintain that any system of nursing has sources of knowledge not derived from the profession.”15

In a fascinating study of the secularization and professionalization of nursing in France, Katrine Schulte’s describes the debate about the.

The Duties Of Nurses and Physicians

Anger, “do physicians know this when they are interns and residents and 57 so quickly forget it when they become attendings and are too busy to round with the nurse, or even bother to talk to us to get critical information about their patients?”

To answer that question we have to go back to the nineteenth century, when nurse-doctor relationships were established in the hospital. Most hospitals in the early nineteenth century were not devoted either to medical teaching or practice. They were charitable, philanthropic institutions dedicated to caring for the sick poor and sometimes simply to housing the destitute.1 Indeed, with the exception of physicians trained in the large medically run hospitals in Paris, Edinburgh, Berlin, and other cities in Europe and North America, most doctors had no formal institutional training. “Medical training varied from classical university education and the study of Greek and Latin medical texts, on the one hand, to broom- and-apron apprenticeship in an apothecary’s shop, on the other—and sometimes involved no recognizable education at all,” according to M. Jeanne Peterson.2 Doctors enjoyed little prestige and suffered from a rather poor public image. Competition for patients was cutthroat and doctors trying to eke out a living in the countryside or large cities were attacking each other rather than seeking to bolster the public’s trust in the profession.3

With only a few exceptions, doctors didn’t run hospitals. Church- or community-run hospitals gave doctors space to observe and treat the sick, but clerics or community authorities controlled them. Physicians, as the nursing historian Joan Lynaugh has described them, were “welcome visitors in these hospitals,” with the operative term being “visitor.” While nurses were sometimes actual live in residents of these hospitals, some physicians never even set foot in them.4 They cared for their patients in the patients’ homes or in their offices. (When possible, surgeons did use hospital facilities for obvious reasons). In Protestant countries, hospital boards of trustees or governors—made up of affluent or influential laymen employed physicians. The lay boards made all the major decisions about how the hospital functioned and chose which poor patients were worthy enough to be admitted. As Lynaugh vividly explains, “the town drunk couldn’t necessarily get admitted, but a productive working man could.”

In the late nineteenth century, all of this began to change. Scientists and physicians were gaining more knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and chemistry. They were learning more about contagion and how to relieve pain. They developed more accurate diagnostic equipment and devised treatments that actually did less harm than good. The hospital started to view patients through a different lens. To the new, scientifically minded.